A year ago today, the security firm FireEye made an announcement that was as surprising as it was alarming. Sophisticated hackers had silently slipped into the company’s network, carefully tailoring their attack to evade the company’s defenses. It was a thread that would unspool into what is now known as the SolarWinds hack, a Russian espionage campaign that resulted in the compromise of countless victims.
To say the SolarWinds attack was a wake-up call would be an understatement. It laid bare how extensive the fallout can be from so-called supply chain attacks, when attackers compromise widely used software at the source, in turn giving them the ability to infect anyone who uses it. In this case, it meant that Russian intelligence had potential access to as many as 18,000 SolarWinds customers. They ultimately broke into fewer than 100 choice networks—including those of Fortune 500 companies like Microsoft and the US Justice Department, State Department, and NASA.
Supply chain attacks aren’t new. But the magnitude of the SolarWinds crisis significantly raised awareness, sparking a year of frantic investment in security improvements across the tech industry and US government.
“If I don’t get a call on December 12, I’ll consider that a success,” says SolarWinds president and CEO Sudhakar Ramakrishna. On that date a year ago, SolarWinds itself learned that Orion, its IT management tool, was the source of the FireEye intrusion—and what would ultimately become dozens more. Ramakrishna did not yet work at SolarWinds, but he was slated to join on January 4, 2021.
While this week marks the one-year anniversary of cascading discoveries around the SolarWinds hack, the incident actually dates back as early as March 2020. Russia’s APT 29 hackers—also known as Cozy Bear, UNC2452, and Nobelium—spent months laying the groundwork. But that very dissonance illustrates the nature of software supply chain threats. The hardest part of the job is upfront. If the staging phase is successful, they can flip a switch and simultaneously gain access to many victim networks at once, all with trusted software that seems legitimate.