How Many Computers Are in Your Computer? – EEJournal

It’s computers all the way down. We know about recursion in software, but it’s surprising to find it occurring in hardware. How many computers are really inside your computer? One? A couple? Maybe a dozen? In reality, it’s probably hundreds. 

Normal people count the average PC, Mac, or Linux box as one computer. But, as engineers, we know there’s really more than one processor inside. But how many, really? In the early days of the IBM Personal Computer Model 5150, the keyboard had its own 8048 microcontroller chip that translated the up/down key actions into the weird IBM “scancodes” that PCs have used ever since. So that’s two processors… 

Today, your PC’s video output is probably handled by a GPU from Intel, AMD, or nVidia. That’s one more processor — and a pretty elaborate one, too. GPUs are not simple machines, and they’re completely programmable, which makes them processors by any definition. 

Depending on your GPU, it may have tens, hundreds, or even thousands of separate processing cores. Do we count each one separately, or treat them all as one GPU? Same goes for your computer’s main processor. It’s probably got four, eight, or more CPU cores. 

Importantly, each one of those CPU cores is a complete processor that’s programmable and largely independent of its sibling CPU cores on the same die. Each core might also be dual- or multithreaded, nearly doubling its capabilities. Plus, there are security processors buried within the x86 processor, like the Intel Management Engine or AMD’s Platform Security Processor. Even the MMU can operate on its own. How many processors are we up to now? 

Hard disk drives, SSDs, and optical drives all have their own controller ICs that contain one or more processors (probably ARM-based), and many of those are multi-core designs as well. Ethernet and Wi-Fi interfaces are processor-controlled, as are USB ports. Even USB cables have processors inside. Pluggable SD cards have their own internal controllers, not just memory. Got a fancy gaming rig with addressable LEDs, PWM fans, an AIO cooler, a Corsair controller, and DIMMs that light up? Guess what’s controlling all of those. 

Then there are the…


UVa engineering researchers find security flaw in fast computer chips | UVa

“Usually when a security issue happens, it comes in through software. It’s like they see your secrets through the window or sneak a peek while walking through the gate,” Ren said. “Spectre is like walking in the front door and before you get to the security desk, you go down to the basement and listen in on all of the secrets.”

The flaw is not a serious threat to the average laptop, desktop or tablet, the researchers say.

“Information that’s important, like military information, is something hackers will be willing to go to greater lengths to target and use a process like Spectre. But they’re not going to be targeting your grandma,” said Moody. “Well, at least not now, maybe in 10 years or so. These kinds of attacks are more difficult to execute.”

“11-year-old me is not likely to pull this off, but 23-year-old me would be able to take more time to pull this off,” Ren said. “I wouldn’t use this to get into someone’s bank account, but I could use it to get into a bank’s system and access multiple accounts. That’s where this would be a threat. It’s not a threat to your personal computer, but it is a threat to the business world.”

The team is not planning to exploit its discovery. They’re not going to shut down a gasoline pipeline or wrestle ransom in Bitcoin from unsuspecting governments or corporations. Instead, they want to help big chip makers and those involved in the industry find ways to block the thefts.


Computer Security Market 2021 SWOT Analysis, Competitive Landscape and Significant Growth

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Computer Security Market Segmentation:

Computer Security Market, By Application (2016-2027)

Computer Security Market, By Product (2016-2027)

  • Hardware Security
  • Software Security

Major Players Operating in the Computer Security Market:

  • Cisco
  • IBM
  • GarrettCom
  • Siemens
  • CyberArk
  • Symantec
  • Honeywell
  • Cybercon
  • Check Point
  • Waterfall
  • Parsons
  • Wurldtech
  • Weinute Technology

Company Profiles – This is a very important section of the report that contains accurate and detailed profiles for the major players in the global Computer Security market. It provides information on the main…


Polychain, A16z Face Unregistered Security Lawsuit Over Internet Computer Token Sale

Protect yourself from online attacks that threaten your identity, your files, your system, and your financial well-being.

Dfinity’s highly-anticipated Internet Computer (CRYPTO: ICP) platform found itself amid a major controversy after a class-action lawsuit been filed in California describes it as an unregistered security.

What Happened: The complaint was filed on July 15 “on behalf of all investors who purchased Internet Computer Project tokens on or after May 10, 2021.”

The filing targets cryptocurrency hedge fund Polychain Capital, venture capital firm Andreessen Horowitz and Dfinity’s founder Dominic Williams as defendants in the lawsuit.

Internet Computer attempts to combine the high-speed data processing power of the internet with the security and trustlessness of blockchain technology by employing a novel consensus system based on queries and calls instead of the more familiar Cardano’s (CRYPTO: ADA) proof-of-stake and Bitcoin’s (CRYPTO: BTC) proof-of-work. 

What’s ICP? With its claimed “unprecedented” capabilities, Internet Computer intends to compete not only with the likes of Ethereum (CRYPTO: ETH) but also with the cloud computing industry and most centralized services ranging from social media such as Facebook (NASDAQ:FB) to intermediaries such as Uber Technologies Inc. (NYSE:UBER).

This new cryptocurrency launched in May and found enough hype by market participants that its network is now worth $4.6 billion — it is the 21st biggest cryptocurrency.

The Lawsuit: A recent report by crypto intelligence firm Arkham Intelligence suggests that Internet Computer’s 90% price crash in its first month is unusual for a project with heavy institutional investment and support.

While a spokesperson for the project dismissed the paper as “ludicrous” in an email sent to an industry news outlet Decrypt, the document purportedly identified $2 billion of ICP being transferred by “probable insider addresses” to cryptocurrency exchanges at times coinciding with sharp price decreases.

In other words, the document suggests a probable “dumping” by people involved with the project.

Read also: Dogecoin Campaign Leads To $5M Lawsuit For Coinbase Over Claims Of Deception

The lawsuit filed in California alleges that 469,213,710 ICP tokens were “created out of thin…