The next frontier of warfare is online

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Sometime in mid-2009 or early 2010 — no one really knows for sure — a brand new weapon of war burst into the world at the Natanz nuclear research facility in Iran. Unlike the debut of previous paradigm-shattering weapons such as the machine gun, airplane, or atomic bomb, however, this one wasn’t accompanied by a lot of noise and destruction. No one was killed or even wounded. But the weapon achieved its objective to temporarily cripple the Iranian nuclear weapon program, by destroying gas centrifuges used for uranium enrichment. Unfortunately, like those previous weapons, this one soon caused unanticipated consequences.

The use of that weapon, a piece of software called Stuxnet widely concluded to have been jointly developed by the United States and Israel, was arguably the first publicly known instance of full-scale cyberwarfare. The attack deployed a software vulnerability or exploit, called a zero-day, buried so deeply in computer code that it remains undetected until someone — a team of hackers, a criminal, an intelligence or law enforcement agency — activates it. We’ve all heard of, and perhaps even been victimized by, criminal hacks that may have pilfered our credit card numbers and passwords, or been spammed by suspicious emails that invite us to claim supposed Nigerian fortunes. But zero-days operate on a different level entirely.

“Zero-days offer digital superpowers,” New York Times cybersecurity reporter Nicole Perlroth writes in “This Is How They Tell Me the World Ends: The Cyberweapons Arms Race.”

“Exploiting a zero-day, hackers can break into any system — any company, government agency, or bank — that relies on the affected software or hardware and drop a payload to achieve their goal, whether it be espionage, financial theft, or sabotage. There are no patches for zero-days, until they are uncovered. It’s a little like having the spare key to a locked building.”

Such capabilities, says Perlroth, make zero-days “one of the most coveted tools in a spy or cybercriminal’s arsenal.”

As with any other highly coveted commodity, a vast covert global market has sprung up to meet the demand for zero-days. Perlroth explains that this invisible digital trade was…


Ethics of Cyber Warfare against Nation States | Articles

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Dear Editor, 

Ethics starts with determining the laws of war and trying to regulate what is considered legal in the eyes of international law. The additional protocols of the Geneva Convention in 1977 mentions the prevention of “an attack which may be expected to cause incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians, damage to civilian objects, or a combination of thereof, which would be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated” (ICRC, 1977).

As a nation state, national security is one of the most important duties that involve protecting the government and its people. In the beginning, national security pertained to various types of military threats, while cyber security became a late addition to ongoing threats that no longer requires a declaration before taking action. Regardless of time and location, attacks can be conducted at any moment as long as there is access to the cyber world.

Conducting an offensive cyber warfare on a nation state can raise severe ethical issues for the public. Being completely different from any type of conventional weapon, the general population is at the greatest risk of being exposed to the destruction of its economy, energy, food, and critical infrastructure. A state’s critical infrastructure is composed of physical, non-physical, and cyber resources or support services that are necessary for society and its economy to function at its minimum standard.

Stuxnet is one of the earliest forms of cyber warfare where it achieved its goal of hindering Iran’s nuclear program for roughly a year. It was able to “launch an offensive on four companies” (Zetter, 2017) that had connections with the nuclear program. Delaying the progress of a nation state’s weapon capabilities might be one of the very few ethical attacks. Meanwhile, near-peer adversaries such as Russia has shown capabilities to interfere with elections and government affairs throughout the world and reap the benefits of chaos and instability.

In a way, cyber warfare against nation states have been long underway due to being a subject of uncertainty and the lack of enforcement by any…


To Survive, Deceive: Decoys in Land Warfare

Editor’s Note: This article has been adapted from a paper in French published in Défense & Sécurité Internationale (DSI).

In a black-and-white photo seen in many books and newspapers to illustrate the deception integral to the D-Day invasion, four men carry a 30-ton Sherman tank near what seems to be a barrack. This famous image is bizarre. Of course, what it shows is an inflatable tank, a decoy that was used in the vast and complex deception operation around the 1944 Normandy landings. Land tactical decoys are dummy equipment like armored vehicles, bridging capabilities, artillery pieces, and radars or installations (buildings, bridges, and runways) intended to deceive enemy observers. Their use has been standard in warfare since ancient times. Among the countless examples, relatively contemporary decoys include the Quaker guns of the U.S. Civil War, which were logs simulating artillery pieces; “horses” made of wood and blankets used by the British at the Battle of Megiddo in September 1918; the construction by Her Majesty’s Sappers of 8,400 dummy vehicles and devices of all kinds for Operation Bertram in 1942; and, more recently, various decoys to deceive enemy aircraft used by the Iraqis in 1990 and 1991, the Serbs in Kosovo in 1999, the self-styled Islamic State group in Syria and Iraq, the Houthis in Yemen, and Armenians and Azerbaijanis in Nagorno-Karabakh in 2020. Unsurprisingly, major potential adversaries of Western countries have kept a place for decoys in their armed forces: China seems well equipped and appears to give decoys a prominent place in its maneuvers, for example, and North Korea is reportedly using decoys intensively to protect its equipment and plans to use them extensively in warfare. Faithful to its longtime military doctrine of maskirovka, or deception, Russia pays special attention to decoys and even has a dedicated unit (the 45th Independent Camouflage Regiment) stationed near Nakhabino in the Moscow region.



Western armies, however, appear to have dropped decoys from their inventories. The main reason is that for too long, they have benefited from “operational comfort” and, in particular, undisputed air superiority during interventions…


Cyber Warfare Market Across Segments By Application, Organization Size, Type, And Region Forecast By 2027 – Los Hijos de la Malinche

Overview Of Cyber Warfare Industry 2021-2027:

This has brought along several changes in This report also covers the impact of COVID-19 on the global market.

The Cyber Warfare Market analysis summary by Reports Insights is a thorough study of the current trends leading to this vertical trend in various regions. In addition, this study emphasizes thorough competition analysis on market prospects, especially growth strategies that market experts claim.

Cyber Warfare Market competition by top manufacturers as follow: BAE System, Boeing, General Dynamic, Lockheed Martin, Raytheon

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The global Cyber Warfare market has been segmented on the basis of technology, product type, application, distribution channel, end-user, and industry vertical, along with the geography, delivering valuable insights.

The Type Coverage in the Market are:

Market Segment by Applications, covers:


Market segment by Regions/Countries, this report covers
North America
Rest of Asia Pacific
Central & South America
Middle East & Africa

Major factors covered in the report:

  • Global Cyber Warfare Market summary
  • Economic Impact on the Industry
  • Market Competition in terms of Manufacturers
  • Production, Revenue (Value) by geographical segmentation
  • Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type
  • Market Analysis by Application
  • Cost Investigation
  • Industrial Chain, Raw material sourcing strategy and Downstream Buyers
  • Marketing Strategy comprehension, Distributors and Traders
  • Study on Market Research Factors
  • Global Cyber Warfare Market Forecast

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The analysis objectives of the report are:

  • To know the Global Cyber Warfare Market size by pinpointing its sub-segments.
  • To study the important players and analyse their growth plans.
  • To analyse the amount and value of the Global Cyber WarfareMarket, depending on key regions
  • To analyse the Global Cyber Warfare Market concerning growth trends, prospects and also their participation in the entire sector.
  • To examine the Global…